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They vary greatly in size and there are significant regional variations in the type of rig, however they all employ fully battened sails.Junks were efficient and sturdy ships that sailed long distances as early as the 2nd century AD, although whether this is indeed a date by which the hull form which we know as the junk's had found its final form is extremely dubious.During the Middle Ages, furniture was held together with pegs, dovetails, mortise and tenon joints and a few nails.Archaeologists have found hand made bronze nails from as far back as 3000 BC.As Wreck Inspector for the Western Australian Museum I came across many ships fastenings and in trying to provenance and correctly describe them studied those from the well-documented 200-year period after the advent of the underwriters, Lloyd’s of London around 1760.

The quest for the ideal nail has taken centuries of development.of rope, cord or threads were made of organic substances like papyrus, reeds, coconut fibre, grass, coir, hemp, reeds, grasses, vines, rattan (a form of climbing palm), root, animal sinew and leather, ‘withies’ i.e. This ‘cordage’ can appear in the form of ‘stitches’, lacings, ligatures, and lashings., which can appear in the form of dowels, pins, treenails (trunnels), pegs, tenons, ‘keys’, mortise-and-tenon joints, and coaks were constructed of an equally wide variety of timbers. not passing completely through the timbers being joined, or ‘through’, and are generally ‘wedged’ and/or ‘pegged’ to help secure them in place.cleatdottledouble dovetail clampdovetail keydoweldraw tonguefree tenonligature peglocked draw tonguelathloose tenoncoakpegpegged tenonsplug treenailpunchrailspilepegstenontenon pegstonguetreenail/trunnel/trenneltreenail wedgetreenail plugtreenail pegunpegged tenonswedgewithybraidcordlashingligatureropesennitthread .These (and occasionally spikes) were often ‘ragged’ (with barbs) to provide greater holding power.They enlisted the help of Jay Rosloff, a hull specialist from Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University.As the boat lay in shallow waters, 2 meters (6 ft 7 in) deep, excavators had to deal with difficult working conditions caused by the surge.There is no evidence that these were adopted in Western shipbuilding by direct emulation.In this case, as in so many others, parallel invention, often in response to quite different hydrodynamic, aerodynamic or technical stimuli, is the historically better evidenced explanation.While often appearing on the boat or ship as ‘straight nails’ to finish with their ends ‘short’ or ‘blind’ within or beneath timbers; large nails—that pass ‘straight’ through frames and strakes—can be found with the projecting end bent once, to become ‘turned nails’ (single-clenched) or twice to become nails that are ‘hooked’ (double-clenched), back into the timbers.Sometimes nails are hooked over quadrilateral washers called roves.The Romans made many of their nails from iron, which was harder, but many ancient iron nails have rusted away since.The hand-forged nail changed little until well into the 1700's.The Ma'agan Michael Ship is a well-preserved 5th-century BCE boat discovered off the coast of Kibbutz Ma'agan Michael, Israel, in 1985.The ship was excavated and its timber immersed in preservation tanks at the University of Haifa, undergoing a seven-year process of impregnation by heated polyethylene glycol (PEG).An overview spanning millenia and many boats, it remains but a pointer to a myriad of deeper studies by expert others past and present who, though far to numerous to list here, appear in the references to the 2005 work.Clearly I defer to them in their respective areas of expertise.

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